Links to full articles regarding these fixes are below in Related Content.
Problem: Device Manager only shows the mobile device as Microsoft Windows Mobile Remote Adapter (or Microsoft USB Sync) but not as a Portable Device, so Windows Mobile Device Center will not show the device as connected.
Media Feature Pack: Download all of these, and install any that will, in this order:
Uninstall and reinstall WMDC.
Set this to run (for all users) in Compatibility mode for Vista: C:\Windows\WindowsMobile\wmdc.exe
Download WMDC-Helper.exe and Run As Administrator.
Reboot the PC.
Hardware resets, including Warm Boot and Clean Boot may be necessary at this point.
Problem: WMDC will not run on Windows 10 Creators Update (v1703):
Run Command Prompt as an administrator, then run these commands:
REG ADD HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\RapiMgr /v SvcHostSplitDisable /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f
REG ADD HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\WcesComm /v SvcHostSplitDisable /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f
Services.msc, for both of the following, set the Log On tab to Local System Account, then start the service:
Windows Mobile-2003-based device connectivity
Windows mobile-based device connectivity
If wmdc.exe is running in Task Manager, end task on it, then relaunch WMDC from the Start Menu.
Note: It may be necessary to reapply all or portions of this fix after rebooting the PC.