Many Windows 8 and Windows 10 PCs come with McAfee Livesafe preinstalled. Unfortunately, Livesafe prevents Windows from recognizing Windows Mobile/CE devices.
The only known workaround is to uninstall Livesafe from the PC (reboot required). Simply disabling Livesafe will not fix the problem.
Note: When uninstalling, if you get a message that says "Navigation to the webpage was cancelled", you will need to download a removal utility from McAfee and use that to uninstall LiveSafe: